European Journal of Sport Sciences 2022-09-06T05:32:58-04:00 Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems <p>European Journal of Sport Sciences</p> The Influence of Music on Judges’ Evaluation of Complex Skills in Gymnastics 2022-08-08T11:51:55-04:00 Frederike Veit Juliane Veit Thomas Heinen <p class="Abstract">In technical compositional sports, such as gymnastics, judges' decisions regarding deductions for errors in an athlete's execution of complex skills lead to the final evaluation of the exercise shown. Different variables can become important in the context of decisions in sports, and consequently, various factors influence the judges’ performances. Therefore, the current study aims to investigate the influence of music on the evaluations of female gymnastics floor routines. Participants' task was to evaluate gymnastic series on the floor in three different conditions (audio-visual, beat-matched, and visual). The results show that the participants (22 judges and 22 laypeople) rated the executions of the gymnastic series in the beat-matched condition (unchanged video file and selected music) higher than in the audio-visual (unchanged video file and auditory information) and visual (unchanged video file and no auditory information) conditions. By the fact that performances in the beat-matched condition are rated the highest by the judges, one could conclude that it makes it worthwhile for the gymnasts to select their music so that the rhythmical structure coincides with the corresponding motor activity.</p> 2022-09-06T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Frederike Veit, Juliane Veit, Thomas Heinen New Method to Assess and Enhance Athletes’ Performance Based on Muscle Synergy Patterns: A New Approach to Design a Biofeedback Training Scheme 2022-08-18T06:27:41-04:00 Armin Hakkak Moghadam Torbati Mohammadamin Gholibeigi Shahab Jami <p><em>Objectives</em>: There has been a big challenge for athletes at any level to reach their ultimate performance. According to a Motor Control theory, accurate programming of movements during the last stage of preparation to work out can improve athletes' performance. So, this study aims to design a performance analysis method that can be used to classify athletes and give them feedback during exercise. In this way, athletes and coaches can consider exercise schemes to modify and ameliorate athletes' performance. </p> <p><em>Methods</em>: The participants were made up of 20 men between 25 to 30 years old. These subjects include ten professional football players and ten amateur football players. The same trials in 6 successive days were done by all athletes, both professional and amateur. Two different types of conditions were designed for all participants. In the first three days, subjects were asked to shoot a penalty kick (football player) 10 times in an actual situation like what they do in a competition. These procedures were done in the simulation condition, in the next three days designed by the computer (Xbox). Surface electromyography (sEMG) was recorded from the gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles during trials.</p> <p><em>Results</em>: Results showed the maximum error between basis vectors in all of the professional subjects in each situation, real and game, were 0.48 and 0.37, respectively (Mean square error index), which are very low relative to the range of data (5.1). In contrast, the minimum error among amateurs in each situation was 13.18 and 18.72, which are a high amount compared with the range of data (7). </p> <p><em>Discussion</em>: Professional athletes always, in both situations, use their muscles in the same way. In fact, professional athletes' muscles follow specific patterns due to slight errors, while amateurs' muscles do not.</p> 2022-09-13T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Armin Hakkak Moghadam Torbati, Mohammadamin Gholibeigi, Shahab Jami